Selasa, 05 Januari 2010

GRUNGE

Kurt Cobain

Tahun 1990-an ketika wabah musik Grunge yang awalnya adalah percampuran kental antara Heavy Metal dan Post-Punk bahkan Hardcore bermunculan di Seattle, walaupun sedikit cenderung ke Alternative rock. Band Grunge dari Seattle, seperti Nirvana, Soundgarden, Pearl Jam, dan Alice in Chains sebelum band itu ada sebenarnya grunge sudah ada oleh band-band seperti Malfunkshun dan Green River setelah itu ada Temple of the Dog Mad Season, Mudhoney sampai Melvins. Setelah kematian Kurt Cobain musik Grunge jarang datang lalu kembali di-ilhami dengan band-band seperti Skin Yard dan PJ Harvey. Jika suatu band memainkan musik Grunge tapi band itu bukan berasa dari Seattle. Nama yang dipakai bukanlah Grunge, tetapi Post-Grunge seperti L7, Stone Temple Pilots, Paw, Hole.

Senin, 07 Desember 2009

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Grunge Grunge
Stylistic origins Aliran: Alternative rock , hardcore punk , heavy metal , indie rock Alternative rock, hardcore punk, heavy metal, indie rock
Cultural origins Budaya asal Mid-1980s, Washington Pertengahan 1980-an, Washington
Typical instruments Khas instrumen Electric guitar - Bass guitar - Drums - Vocals Gitar listrik - Gitar bass - Drum - Vokal
Mainstream popularity Popularitas mainstream High during the early–mid 1990s; low but existent since then. Tinggi selama awal-pertengahan 1990-an; rendah, tetapi ada sejak itu.
Derivative forms Bentuk turunan Post-grunge Post-grunge
Regional scenes Regional
Seattle Seattle
Other topics Topik-topik lainnya
Timeline of alternative rock - Generation X Urutan rock alternatif - Generasi X

Grunge (sometimes referred to as the Seattle sound ) is a subgenre of alternative rock that emerged during the mid-1980s in the American state of Washington , particularly in the Seattle area. Grunge (kadang-kadang disebut sebagai suara Seattle) adalah sebuah subgenre dari alternative rock yang muncul pada pertengahan 1980-an di negara Amerika Washington, khususnya di Seattle area. Inspired by hardcore punk , heavy metal and indie rock , grunge is generally characterized by heavily distorted electric guitars , contrasting song dynamics , and apathetic or angst-filled lyrics. Terinspirasi oleh hardcore punk, heavy metal, dan indie rock, grunge secara umum dicirikan oleh sangat terdistorsi gitar listrik, lagu kontras dinamika, dan apatis atau lirik penuh kecemasan. The grunge aesthetic is stripped-down compared to other forms of rock music, and many grunge musicians were noted for their unkempt appearances and rejection of theatrics. Estetika grunge adalah dilucuti-turun dibandingkan dengan bentuk-bentuk lain dari musik rock, dan banyak musisi grunge yang terkenal karena penampilan mereka yang tak terpelihara dan penolakan terhadap sandiwara.

The early grunge movement coalesced around Seattle independent record label Sub Pop in the late 1980s. Awal gerakan grunge bersatu di sekitar Seattle independent record label Sub Pop di akhir 1980-an. Grunge became commercially successful in the first half of the 1990s, due mainly to the release of Nirvana 's Nevermind and Pearl Jam 's Ten . Grunge menjadi sukses secara komersial pada paruh pertama tahun 1990-an, terutama karena pembebasan Nirvana's Nevermind dan Pearl Jam 's Sepuluh. The success of these bands boosted the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of hard rock music at the time. [ 1 ] However, many grunge bands were uncomfortable with this popularity. Keberhasilan band-band ini meningkatkan popularitas rock alternatif grunge dan membuat bentuk yang paling populer musik hard rock pada waktu itu. [1] Namun, banyak band grunge yang tidak nyaman dengan popularitas. Although most grunge bands had disbanded or faded from view by the late 1990s, their influence continues to impact modern rock music. Meskipun kebanyakan band grunge telah bubar atau menghilang dari tampilan dengan akhir 1990-an, pengaruh mereka terus dampak musik rock modern.

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[ edit ] Origin of the term [Sunting] Asal usul istilah

The word grunge is believed to be a back-formation from the US slang adjective grungy , [ 2 ] which originated in about 1965 as a slang term for "dirty" or "filthy." Mark Arm , the vocalist for the Seattle band Green River —and later Mudhoney —is generally credited as being the first to use the term grunge to describe this sort of music. Kata grunge diyakini menjadi belakang formasi dari kata sifat slang AS grunge, [2] yang berasal dari sekitar tahun 1965 sebagai sebuah slang istilah untuk "kotor" atau "kotor." Mark Arm, vokalis band Seattle Green River -dan kemudian Mudhoney-biasanya dikreditkan sebagai yang pertama menggunakan istilah grunge untuk menggambarkan musik semacam ini. Arm first used the term in 1981, when he wrote a letter under his given name Mark McLaughlin to the Seattle zine , Desperate Times , criticizing his band Mr. Epp and the Calculations as "Pure grunge! Pure noise! Pure shit!" Tangan pertama menggunakan istilah pada tahun 1981, ketika ia menulis surat di bawah nama yang diberikan Mark McLaughlin ke Seattle zine, Desperate Times, mengkritik bandnya Mr Epp dan Perhitungan sebagai "Pure grunge! Murni suara! Murni sialan!" Clark Humphrey, editor of Desperate Times , cites this as the earliest use of the term to refer to a Seattle band, and mentions that Bruce Pavitt of Sub Pop popularized the term as a musical label in 1987–88, using it on several occasions to describe Green River. [ 3 ] Arm said years later, "Obviously, I didn't make [grunge] up. I got it from someone else. The term was already being thrown around in Australia in the mid-'80s to describe bands like King Snake Roost , The Scientists , Salamander Jim, and Beasts of Bourbon ." [ 4 ] Arm used grunge as a descriptive term rather than a genre term, but it eventually came to describe the punk/metal hybrid sound of the Seattle music scene. [ 5 ] Clark Humphrey, editor Desperate Times, mengutip ini sebagai awal penggunaan istilah untuk merujuk kepada sebuah band Seattle, dan menyebutkan bahwa Bruce Pavitt dari Sub Pop mempopulerkan istilah sebagai label musik di 1987-88, menggunakannya pada beberapa kesempatan untuk menggambarkan Green River. [3] Lengan kata tahun kemudian, "Jelas, saya tidak membuat [grunge] up. saya mendapatkannya dari orang lain. Istilah ini sudah yang dilemparkan sekitar di Australia pada pertengahan '80-an untuk mendeskripsikan band-band seperti King Snake Roost, Para Ilmuwan, Salamander Jim, dan Binatang Buas Bourbon. "[4] Lengan digunakan grunge sebagai istilah deskriptif dibandingkan istilah genre, tapi akhirnya datang untuk menggambarkan punk / metal suara hibrida scene musik Seattle . [5]

[ edit ] Characteristics [Sunting] Karakteristik

Grunge is generally characterized by a sludgy guitar sound that uses a high level of distortion, fuzz and feedback effects. Grunge umumnya ditandai oleh suara gitar berlumpur yang menggunakan tingkat tinggi distorsi, fuzz dan umpan balik efek. Grunge fuses elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other. Elemen sekering grunge hardcore punk dan heavy metal, meskipun beberapa band dilakukan dengan lebih menekankan pada satu atau yang lain. The music shares with punk a raw sound and similar lyrical concerns. [ 1 ] However, it also involves much slower tempos , dissonant harmonies, and more complex instrumentation – which is reminiscent of heavy metal. Musik punk saham dengan suara mentah dan kekhawatiran lirik serupa. [1] Bagaimanapun, hal ini juga melibatkan jauh lebih lambat tempo, disonan harmoni, dan lebih kompleks instrumentasi - yang mengingatkan pada logam berat. Some individuals associated with the development of grunge, including Sub Pop producer Jack Endino and the Melvins , explained grunge's incorporation of heavy rock influences such as Kiss as "musical provocation." Beberapa individu yang terkait dengan perkembangan grunge, termasuk Sub Pop produser Jack Endino dan Melvins, menjelaskan grunge's penggabungan pengaruh heavy rock seperti Kiss sebagai "provokasi musikal." Grunge artists considered these bands "cheesy" but nonetheless enjoyed them; Buzz Osborne of the Melvins described it as an attempt to see what ridiculous things bands could do and get away with. [ 6 ] In the early 1990s, Nirvana's signature "stop-start" song format became a genre convention. [ 1 ] Seniman dianggap grunge band-band ini "cheesy" tapi tetap menikmati mereka; Buzz Osborne dari Melvins menggambarkannya sebagai suatu usaha untuk melihat hal-hal konyol band apa yang bisa dilakukan dan pergi dengan. [6] Pada awal 1990-an, Nirvana's signature "stop-start "song format menjadi genre konvensi. [1]

[ edit ] Themes [Sunting] Tema

Lyrics are typically angst -filled, often addressing themes such as social alienation, apathy, confinement, and a desire for freedom. Lyrics biasanya kecemasan-penuh, sering berbicara tema-tema seperti alienasi sosial, apatis, penyekapan, dan keinginan untuk kebebasan. A number of factors influenced the focus on such subject matter. Sejumlah faktor mempengaruhi fokus pada masalah tersebut. Many grunge musicians displayed a general disenchantment with the state of society, as well as a discomfort with social prejudices. Banyak musisi grunge menunjukkan kekecewaan umum dengan keadaan masyarakat, serta ketidaknyamanan dengan prasangka sosial. Such themes bear similarities to those addressed by punk rock musicians [ 1 ] and the perceptions of Generation X . Music critic Simon Reynolds said in 1992 that "there's a feeling of burnout in the culture at large. Kids are depressed about the future." [ 7 ] However, not all grunge songs dealt with these issues. Nirvana 's satirical " In Bloom " is a notable example of more humorous writing. Seperti beruang kesamaan tema dengan yang ditangani oleh musisi rock punk [1] dan persepsi para Generasi X. Musik kritikus Simon Reynolds mengatakan pada tahun 1992 yang "ada rasa kejenuhan dalam budaya pada umumnya. Anak-anak tertekan mengenai masa depan." [ 7] Namun, tidak semua lagu grunge berurusan dengan isu-isu ini. Nirvana 's satir "In Bloom" adalah contoh terkenal lebih lucu menulis. Several other grunge songs are filled with either a dark or fun sense of humor— Mudhoney 's " Touch Me I'm Sick " or Tad 's "Stumblin' Man"—though this often went unnoticed by the general public at the time. Beberapa lagu-lagu grunge lainnya dipenuhi dengan baik atau menyenangkan gelap rasa humor-Mudhoney 's "Touch Me I'm Sick" atau Tad' s "Stumblin 'Man"-walaupun ini sering pergi tanpa diketahui oleh masyarakat umum pada waktu itu. Humor in grunge often satirized glam metal—for example, Soundgarden 's "Big Dumb Sex"—and other forms of popular rock music during the 1980s. [ 8 ] Humor di grunge seringkali satirized glam metal-misalnya, Soundgarden 's "Big Dumb Sex"-dan bentuk-bentuk musik rock yang populer pada 1980-an. [8]

[ edit ] Presentation and fashion [Sunting] Presentasi dan mode

Grunge concerts were known for being straightforward, high-energy performances. Konser grunge dikenal karena menjadi mudah, pertunjukan energi tinggi. Grunge bands rejected the complex and high budget presentations of many musical genres, including the use of complex light arrays, pyrotechnics, and other visual effects unrelated to playing the music. Band grunge menolak kompleks dan presentasi anggaran tinggi dari banyak genre musik, termasuk penggunaan lampu kompleks array, kembang api, dan efek visual lainnya yang tidak terkait dengan bermain musik. Stage acting was generally avoided. Tahap bertindak pada umumnya dihindari. Instead the bands presented themselves as no different from minor local bands. Sebaliknya band-band yang disajikan diri mereka sebagai tidak berbeda dari band-band lokal kecil. Jack Endino said in the 1996 documentary Hype! that Seattle bands were inconsistent live performers, since their primary objective was not to be entertainers, but simply to "rock out." [ 6 ] Jack Endino mengatakan dalam tahun 1996 dokumenter Hype! Bahwa Seattle tidak konsisten hidup band performers, sejak tujuan utama mereka bukan untuk menjadi penghibur, tetapi hanya untuk "nge-rock." [6]

Clothing commonly worn by grunge musicians in Washington consisted of thrift store items and the typical outdoor clothing (most notably flannel shirts) of the region, as well as a general unkempt appearance. Pakaian biasanya dikenakan oleh para musisi grunge di Washington terdiri dari toko baju bekas item dan khas pakaian luar (terutama flanel shirt) dari wilayah, serta penampilan kusut umum. The style did not evolve out of a conscious attempt to create an appealing fashion; music journalist Charles R. Cross said, "Kurt Cobain was just too lazy to shampoo," and Sub Pop's Jonathan Poneman said, "This [clothing] is cheap, it's durable, and it's kind of timeless. It also runs against the grain of the whole flashy aesthetic that existed in the 80's." [ 7 ] Gaya tidak berevolusi dari sebuah upaya sadar untuk menciptakan busana yang menarik; jurnalis musik Charles R. Cross berkata, "Kurt Cobain terlalu malas untuk sampo," dan Sub Pop's Jonathan Poneman berkata, "Ini [pakaian] adalah murah, itu tahan lama, dan itu semacam abadi. Ini juga menjalankan bertentangan dengan seluruh mencolok estetika yang ada di 80's. "[7]

[ edit ] History [Sunting] Sejarah

[ edit ] Roots and influences [Sunting] Akar dan pengaruh

Grunge's sound partly results from Seattle's isolation from other music scenes. Sound grunge sebagian hasil dari Seattle's isolasi dari adegan musik lainnya. As Sub Pop's Jonathan Poneman noted, "Seattle was a perfect example of a secondary city with an active music scene that was completely ignored by an American media fixated on Los Angeles and New York." [ 9 ] Mark Arm claimed that the isolation meant, "this one corner of the map was being really inbred and ripping off each other's ideas." [ 10 ] Grunge evolved from the local punk rock scene, and was inspired by bands such as The Fartz , The U-Men , 10 Minute Warning , The Acc├╝sed and the Fastbacks . [ 6 ] Additionally, the slow, heavy, and sludgy style of the Melvins was a significant influence on the grunge sound. [ 11 ] Sebagai Sub Pop's Jonathan Poneman mencatat, "Seattle merupakan contoh sempurna dari sebuah kota sekunder dengan musik aktif yang sama sekali diabaikan oleh media Amerika terpaku pada Los Angeles dan New York." [9] Mark Arm mengklaim bahwa isolasi berarti, "ini salah satu sudut peta sedang benar-benar alami dan merobek satu sama lain ide." [10] Grunge berkembang dari rock punk lokal, dan terinspirasi oleh band-band seperti The Fartz, U-Men, 10 Minute Warning, terdakwa dan Fastbacks. [6] Selain itu, lambat, berat, dan gaya berpaya Melvins pengaruh yang signifikan pada suara grunge. [11]

Outside the Pacific Northwest, a number of artists and music scenes influenced grunge. Di luar Pacific Northwest, sejumlah seniman dan adegan-adegan yang dipengaruhi musik grunge. Alternative rock bands from the Northeastern United States, including Sonic Youth , Pixies , and Dinosaur Jr. , are important influences on the genre. Band rock alternatif dari Timur Laut Amerika Serikat, termasuk Sonic Youth, Pixies, dan Dinosaur Jr, pengaruh penting di genre. Through their patronage of Seattle bands, Sonic Youth "inadvertently nurtured" the grunge scene, and reinforced the fiercely independent attitudes of its musicians. [ 12 ] The influence of the Pixies on Nirvana was noted by Kurt Cobain , who commented in a Rolling Stone interview that he "connected with the band so heavily that I should be in that band." [ 13 ] Nirvana's use of the Pixies' "soft verse, hard chorus" popularized this stylistic approach in both grunge and other alternative rock subgenres. Melalui patronase mereka band-band Seattle, Sonic Youth "sengaja dipelihara" adegan grunge, dan memperkuat sikap yang sangat independen dari musisi. [12] Pengaruh pada Nirvana Pixies telah dicatat oleh Kurt Cobain, yang berkomentar dalam sebuah wawancara Rolling Stone bahwa ia "berhubungan dengan band ini begitu berat sehingga aku harus di band." [13] Nirvana penggunaan Pixies ' "ayat lembut, hard chorus" mempopulerkan pendekatan gaya ini baik di grunge dan subgenre alternative rock lainnya.

Aside from the genre's punk and alternative rock roots, many grunge bands were equally influenced by heavy metal of the early 1970s. Selain dari genre punk dan rock alternatif akar, banyak band grunge sama-sama dipengaruhi oleh logam berat pada awal 1970-an. Clinton Heylin, author of Babylon's Burning: From Punk to Grunge , cited Black Sabbath as "perhaps the most ubiquitous pre-punk influence on the northwest scene." [ 14 ] Black Sabbath played a role in shaping the grunge sound, through their own records and the records they inspired. [ 15 ] The influence of Led Zeppelin is also evident, particularly in the work of Soundgarden, whom Q magazine noted were "in thrall to '70s rock, but contemptuous of the genre's overt sexism and machismo." [ 16 ] The Los Angeles hardcore punk band Black Flag 's 1984 record My War , where the band combined heavy metal with their traditional sound, made a strong impact in Seattle. Clinton Heylin, penulis Babel's Burning: From Punk to Grunge, mengutip Black Sabbath sebagai "mungkin yang paling pra-punk di mana-mana pengaruhnya terhadap adegan barat laut." [14] Black Sabbath memainkan peranan dalam membentuk sound grunge, melalui catatan mereka sendiri dan catatan mereka terinspirasi. [15] Pengaruh dari Led Zeppelin juga jelas, terutama dalam karya Soundgarden, yang dicatat majalah Q adalah "menjadi budak rock '70-an, tetapi merendahkan genre itu terbuka seksisme dan kejantanan." [ 16] Los Angeles band hardcore punk Black Flag 's catatan 1984 Perang Ku, di mana band heavy metal dikombinasikan dengan suara tradisional mereka, membuat dampak yang kuat di Seattle. Mudhoney's Steve Turner commented, "A lot of other people around the country hated the fact that Black Flag slowed down ... but up here it was really great ... we were like 'Yay!' Mudhoney's Steve Turner berkomentar, "Banyak orang lain di seluruh negeri membenci fakta bahwa Black Flag melambat ... tapi di sini itu benar-benar hebat ... kami seperti 'Yay!" They were weird and fucked-up sounding." [ 17 ] Turner explained grunge's integration of metal influences, noting, "Hard rock and metal was never that much of an enemy of punk like it was for other scenes. Here, it was like, 'There's only twenty people here, you can't really find a group to hate.'" Bands began to mix metal and punk in the Seattle music scene around 1984, with much of the credit for this fusion going to The U-Men . [ 18 ] Mereka aneh dan kacau-up terdengar. "[17] Turner menjelaskan grunge's integrasi dari pengaruh logam, mencatat," Hard rock dan metal tidak pernah bahwa banyak dari musuh punk seperti itu untuk adegan lain. Di sini, rasanya seperti, "Hanya ada dua puluh orang di sini, Anda tidak bisa benar-benar menemukan sebuah kelompok untuk membenci. '" Bands mulai campuran logam dan punk di scene musik Seattle sekitar tahun 1984, dengan banyak pujian untuk fusi ini akan U-Men. [18]

The raw, distorted and feedback-intensive sound of some noise rock bands had an influence on grunge. Mentah, menyimpang dan umpan-suara intensif beberapa kebisingan rock band memiliki pengaruh grunge. Among them are Wisconsin's Killdozer , and most notably San Francisco 's Flipper , a band known for its slowed-down and murky "noise punk." Di antara mereka adalah Wisconsin's Killdozer, dan terutama San Francisco 's Flipper, sebuah band yang dikenal dengan melambat-down dan keruh "noise punk." The Butthole Surfers ' mix of punk, heavy metal and noise rock was a major influence, particularly on the early work of Soundgarden. [ 19 ] Soundgarden and other early grunge bands were influenced by British post-punk bands such as Gang of Four and Bauhaus , which were popular in the early 1980s Seattle scene. [ 20 ] After Neil Young played a few concerts with Pearl Jam and recorded the album Mirror Ball with them, some members of the media gave Young the title "Godfather of Grunge." The Butthole Surfers 'campuran dari punk, heavy metal dan noise batu itu pengaruh besar, terutama pada karya awal Soundgarden. [19] Soundgarden dan band-band grunge awal lain dipengaruhi oleh British post-punk band-band seperti Gang of Four dan Bauhaus , yang populer di awal 1980-an adegan Seattle. [20] Setelah Neil Young bermain beberapa konser dengan Pearl Jam dan merekam album Mirror Ball dengan mereka, beberapa anggota media Young memberikan gelar "Godfather of Grunge." This was grounded on his work with his band Crazy Horse and his regular use of distorted guitar, most notably on the album Rust Never Sleeps . [ 21 ] A similarly influential, yet often overlooked, album is Neurotica by Redd Kross , about which the co-founder of Sub Pop said, " Neurotica was a life changer for me and for a lot of people in the Seattle music community." [ 22 ] Hal ini didasarkan pada karyanya dengan bandnya Crazy Horse dan penggunaan secara teratur gitar terdistorsi, terutama di album Rust Never Sleeps. [21] Sebuah sama berpengaruh, namun sering diabaikan, album Neurotica oleh Redd Kross, tentang yang co -pendiri Sub Pop berkata, "hidup adalah Neurotica changer bagi saya dan bagi banyak orang di komunitas musik Seattle." [22]

[ edit ] Early development [Sunting] Perkembangan awal

The cover artwork for the C/Z Records compilation album Deep Six . Penutup karya seni untuk C / Z Records album kompilasi Deep Six. Released in 1986, the album was the first to showcase Seattle's developing grunge scene. Dirilis pada tahun 1986, album pertama untuk menampilkan berkembang Seattle grunge scene.

A seminal release in the development of grunge was 1986's Deep Six compilation, released by C/Z Records (later reissued on A&M). A seminal release dalam pengembangan grunge adalah 1986's Deep Six kompilasi, dirilis oleh C / Z Records (kemudian dikeluarkan kembali pada A & M). The record featured multiple tracks by six bands: Green River, Soundgarden, Melvins, Malfunkshun , Skin Yard , and The U-Men. Catatan menampilkan beberapa lagu oleh enam band: Green River, Soundgarden, Melvins, Malfunkshun, Skin Yard, dan The U-Men. For many of them it was their first appearance on record. Bagi banyak dari mereka itu adalah penampilan pertama mereka pada catatan data. The artists had "a mostly heavy, aggressive sound that melded the slower tempos of heavy metal with the intensity of hardcore." Para seniman telah "yang sebagian besar berat, suara yang menyatu agresif dengan tempo lambat logam berat dengan intensitas hardcore." As Jack Endino recalled, "People just said, 'Well, what kind of music is this? This isn't metal, it's not punk, What is it?' Jack Endino mengenang, "Orang-orang hanya berkata," Nah, jenis musik apa ini? Ini bukan logam, bukan punk, Apa itu? " [...] People went 'Eureka! These bands all have something in common.'" [ 17 ] [...] Orang-orang pergi 'Eureka! Band ini semua memiliki sesuatu yang sama.' "[17]

Later that year Bruce Pavitt released the Sub Pop 100 compilation and Green River's Dry As a Bone EP as part of his new label, Sub Pop. Belakangan tahun itu Bruce Pavitt merilis Sub Pop 100 kompilasi dan Green River's dry Sebagai Bone EP sebagai bagian dari label barunya, Sub Pop. An early Sub Pop catalog described the Green River EP as "ultra-loose GRUNGE that destroyed the morals of a generation." [ 23 ] Sub Pop's Bruce Pavitt and Jonathan Poneman, inspired by other regional music scenes in music history, worked to ensure that their label projected a "Seattle sound," reinforced by a similar style of production and album packaging. Sebuah katalog awal Sub Pop menggambarkan EP Green River sebagai "ultra-longgar grunge yang merusak moral generasi." [23] Sub Pop's Bruce Pavitt dan Jonathan Poneman, terinspirasi oleh musik daerah lain adegan dalam sejarah musik, bekerja untuk memastikan bahwa memproyeksikan label mereka "Seattle suara," diperkuat oleh gaya yang sama dan album produksi pengemasan. While music writer Michael Azerrad acknowledged that early grunge bands like Mudhoney, Soundgarden, and Tad had disparate sounds, he noted "to the objective observer, there were some distinct similarities." [ 24 ] Early grunge concerts were sparsely attended (many by fewer than a dozen people) but Sub Pop photographer Charles Peterson 's pictures helped create the impression that such concerts were major events. [ 25 ] Mudhoney, which was formed by former members of Green River, served as the flagship band of Sub Pop during their entire time with the label and spearheaded the Seattle grunge movement. [ 26 ] Other record labels in the Pacific Northwest that helped promote grunge included C/Z Records, Estrus Records , EMpTy Records and PopLlama Records. [ 6 ] Sementara penulis musik Michael Azerrad mengakui bahwa band-band grunge awal seperti Mudhoney, Soundgarden, dan Tad memiliki suara-suara yang berbeda, ia mencatat "untuk tujuan pengamat, ada beberapa persamaan yang berbeda." [24] Konser-konser grunge awal jarang dihadiri (banyak oleh kurang dari belasan orang), tetapi Sub Pop fotografer Charles Peterson 's foto membantu menciptakan kesan bahwa konser tersebut adalah peristiwa besar. [25] Mudhoney, yang dibentuk oleh mantan anggota Green River, menjabat sebagai band unggulan dari Sub Pop selama seluruh waktu dengan label dan memimpin gerakan grunge Seattle. [26] Lain-perusahaan rekaman di Pacific Northwest yang membantu mempromosikan grunge termasuk C / Z Records, estrus Records, kosong Records dan PopLlama Records. [6]

Grunge attracted media attention in the United Kingdom after Pavitt and Poneman asked journalist Everett True from the British magazine Melody Maker to write an article on the local music scene. Grunge menarik perhatian media di Inggris Raya setelah Poneman bertanya Pavitt dan jurnalis Everett True dari majalah Inggris Melody Maker untuk menulis sebuah artikel tentang scene musik lokal. This exposure helped to make grunge known outside of the local area during the late 1980s and drew more people to local shows. [ 6 ] The appeal of grunge to the music press was that it "promised the return to a notion of a regional, authorial vision for American rock." [ 27 ] Grunge's popularity in the underground music scene was such that bands began to move to Seattle and approximate the look and sound of the original grunge bands. Paparan ini membantu untuk membuat grunge dikenal di luar daerah setempat selama akhir 1980-an dan menarik lebih banyak orang untuk menunjukkan lokal. [6] Daya tarik grunge di pers musik adalah bahwa hal itu "berjanji kembali ke gagasan regional, authorial visi untuk American rock. "[27] Grunge popularitas dalam musik underground pemandangan sehingga band mulai bergerak ke Seattle dan perkiraan tampilan dan suara dari band-band grunge asli. Mudhoney's Steve Turner said, "It was really bad. Pretend bands were popping up here, things weren't coming from where we were coming from." [ 28 ] As a reaction, many grunge bands diversified their sound, with Nirvana and Tad in particular creating more melodic songs. [ 29 ] Dawn Anderson of the Seattle fanzine Backlash recalled that by 1990 many locals had tired of the hype surrounding the Seattle scene and hoped that media exposure had dissipated. [ 6 ] Mudhoney's Steve Turner mengatakan, "Itu benar-benar buruk. Berpura-pura band-band yang bermunculan di sini, hal itu bukan berasal dari mana kami berasal." [28] Sebagai reaksi, banyak band grunge diversifikasi suara mereka, dengan Nirvana dan Tad di khusus menciptakan lebih banyak melodi lagu. [29] Dawn Anderson dari fanzine Seattle Backlash ingat bahwa pada tahun 1990 banyak penduduk setempat sudah bosan dengan hype di sekitar Seattle dan berharap adegan liputan media telah lenyap. [6]

[ edit ] Mainstream success [Sunting] Mainstream sukses

Nirvana performing at the 1992 MTV Video Music Awards . Nirvana tampil di 1992 MTV Video Music Awards.

Grunge bands had made inroads to the musical mainstream in the late 1980s. Band grunge telah membuat terobosan ke arus utama musik pada akhir 1980-an. Soundgarden was the first grunge band to sign to a major label when they joined the roster of A&M Records in 1989. Soundgarden adalah band grunge pertama untuk menandatangani untuk label besar ketika mereka bergabung dalam daftar dari A & M Records di tahun 1989. Soundgarden, along with other major label signings Alice in Chains and Screaming Trees , performed "okay" with their initial major label releases, according to Jack Endino. [ 6 ] Nirvana, originally from Aberdeen, Washington , was also courted by major labels, finally signing with Geffen Records in 1990. Soundgarden, bersama dengan label besar lain penandatanganan Alice in Chains dan Screaming Trees, dilakukan "oke" dengan label besar awal mereka rilis, menurut Jack Endino. [6] Nirvana, berasal dari Aberdeen, Washington, juga didekati oleh major label, akhirnya penandatanganan dengan Geffen Records pada tahun 1990. In September 1991, the band released its major label debut, Nevermind . Pada bulan September 1991, band ini merilis debut major label, Nevermind. The album was at best hoped to be a minor success on par with Sonic Youth's Goo , which Geffen had released a year previous. [ 30 ] It was the release of the album's first single " Smells Like Teen Spirit " that "marked the instigation of the grunge music phenomenon". Album ini di berharap terbaik untuk menjadi sukses kecil setara dengan Sonic Youth's Goo, yang Geffen telah dirilis setahun sebelumnya. [30] Ini adalah rilis pertama dari album single "Smells Like Teen Spirit" yang "menandai anjuran fenomena musik grunge ". Due to constant airplay of the song's music video on MTV , Nevermind was selling 400,000 copies a week by Christmas 1991. [ 31 ] In January 1992, Nevermind replaced pop superstar Michael Jackson 's Dangerous at number one on the Billboard 200 . [ 32 ] Karena terus-menerus diputar dari lagu musik video di MTV, Nevermind menjual 400.000 eksemplar seminggu oleh Natal 1991. [31] Pada Januari 1992, Nevermind diganti pop superstar Michael Jackson 's Berbahaya di nomor satu di Billboard 200. [32]

The success of Nevermind surprised the music industry. Nevermind not only popularized grunge, but also established "the cultural and commercial viability of alternative rock in general." [ 33 ] Michael Azerrad asserted that Nevermind symbolized "a sea-change in rock music" in which the glam metal that had dominated rock music at that time fell out of favor in the face of music that was authentic and culturally relevant. [ 34 ] Other grunge bands subsequently replicated Nirvana's success. Keberhasilan Nevermind mengejutkan industri musik. Nevermind tidak hanya dipopulerkan grunge, tetapi juga membentuk "budaya dan kelangsungan hidup komersial rock alternatif pada umumnya." [33] Michael Azerrad menegaskan bahwa Nevermind melambangkan "lautan-perubahan dalam musik rock" di yang glam metal yang telah mendominasi musik rock pada waktu itu jatuh dari kasih karunia di hadapan musik yang otentik dan kultural yang relevan. [34] Lain-lain band-band grunge Nirvana kemudian direplikasi sukses. Pearl Jam, which featured former Mother Love Bone members Jeff Ament and Stone Gossard , had released its debut album Ten in August 1991, a month before Nevermind , but album sales only picked up a year later. Pearl Jam, yang menampilkan mantan Mother Love Bone anggota Jeff Ament dan Stone Gossard, telah merilis album debutnya Sepuluh pada bulan Agustus 1991, sebulan sebelum Nevermind, namun penjualan album hanya mengambil setahun kemudian. By the second half of 1992 Ten became a breakthrough success, being certified gold and reaching number two on the Billboard charts. [ 35 ] Soundgarden's album Badmotorfinger and Alice in Chains' Dirt , along with the Temple of the Dog album collaboration featuring members of Pearl Jam and Soundgarden, were also among the 100 top selling albums of 1992. [ 36 ] The popular breakthrough of these grunge bands prompted Rolling Stone to nickname Seattle "the new Liverpool ." [ 7 ] Major record labels signed most of the prominent grunge bands in Seattle, while a second influx of bands moved to the city in hopes of success. [ 37 ] Dengan paruh kedua tahun 1992 menjadi sebuah terobosan Sepuluh sukses, yang meraih sertifikat emas dan nomor dua di tangga lagu Billboard. [35] Soundgarden album Badmotorfinger dan Alice in Chains 'Dirt, bersama dengan Temple of the Dog album yang menampilkan kolaborasi anggota Pearl Jam dan Soundgarden, juga di antara 100 atas penjualan album 1992. [36] terobosan yang populer dari band-band grunge ini diminta Rolling Stone untuk julukan Seattle "baru Liverpool." [7] Mayor menandatangani rekaman terkemuka sebagian besar band-band grunge di Seattle, sementara arus kedua band pindah ke kota dengan harapan keberhasilan. [37]

The popularity of grunge resulted in a large interest in the Seattle music scene's perceived cultural traits. Popularitas grunge mengakibatkan minat besar di scene musik Seattle's dianggap ciri-ciri budaya. While the Seattle music scene in the late 1980s and early 1990s in actuality consisted of various styles and genres of music, its representation in the media "served to depict Seattle as a music 'community' in which the focus was upon the ongoing exploration of one musical idiom, namely grunge." [ 38 ] The fashion industry marketed "grunge fashion" to consumers, charging premium prices for items such as knit ski hats. Sementara musik Seattle pada akhir 1980-an dan awal 1990-an pada kenyataannya terdiri dari berbagai gaya dan genre musik, representasinya di media "disajikan untuk menggambarkan musik Seattle sebagai 'komunitas' di mana fokus pada eksplorasi terus-menerus dari satu idiom musik, yaitu grunge. "[38] industri mode dipasarkan" grunge mode "untuk konsumen, penetapan harga premium untuk barang-barang seperti topi ski merajut. Critics asserted that advertising was co-opting elements of grunge and turning it into a fad. Entertainment Weekly commented in a 1993 article, "There hasn't been this kind of exploitation of a subculture since the media discovered hippies in the '60s" [ 39 ] The New York Times compared the "grunging of America" to the mass-marketing of punk rock, disco , and hip hop in previous years. [ 7 ] Ironically the New York Times was tricked into printing a fake list of slang terms that were supposedly used in the grunge scene; often referred to as the grunge speak hoax. Para kritikus menyatakan bahwa iklan adalah memilih co-elemen grunge dan mengubahnya menjadi mode. Entertainment Weekly berkomentar dalam artikel tahun 1993, "Ada belum eksploitasi semacam ini dari sebuah subkultur sejak ditemukan media hippies di tahun '60-an" [ 39] The New York Times membandingkan "grunging of America" untuk pemasaran massa punk rock, disko, dan hip hop tahun-tahun sebelumnya. [7] Ironisnya New York Times telah tertipu untuk mencetak daftar palsu istilah slang yang yang diduga digunakan dalam adegan grunge; sering disebut sebagai grunge berbicara bohong. This media hype surrounding grunge was documented in the 1996 documentary Hype! . [ 6 ] Media ini hype grunge sekitarnya dicatat pada tahun 1996 dokumenter Hype!. [6]

A backlash against grunge began to develop in Seattle; in 1993 Bruce Pavitt said that in the city, "All things grunge are treated with the utmost cynicism and amusement [. . .] Because the whole thing is a fabricated movement and always has been." [ 7 ] Many grunge artists were uncomfortable with their success and the resulting attention it brought. Sebuah Penolakan terhadap grunge mulai berkembang di Seattle; pada tahun 1993 Bruce Pavitt mengatakan bahwa di kota, "Segala sesuatu grunge diperlakukan dengan sangat sinis dan geli [...] Karena semua ini adalah gerakan palsu dan selalu telah. "[7] Banyak seniman grunge tidak nyaman dengan kesuksesan mereka dan perhatian yang dihasilkan dibawa. Nirvana's Kurt Cobain told Michael Azerrad, "Famous is the last thing I wanted to be." [ 40 ] Pearl Jam also felt the burden of success, with much of the attention falling on frontman Eddie Vedder . [ 41 ] Nirvana's follow-up album In Utero (1993) was an intentionally abrasive album that Nirvana bassist Krist Novoselic described as a "wild aggressive sound, a true alternative record." [ 42 ] Nevertheless, upon its release in September 1993 In Utero topped the Billboard charts. [ 43 ] Pearl Jam also continued to perform well commercially with its second album, Vs. (1993). Nirvana, Kurt Cobain pada Michael Azerrad, "Terkenal adalah hal terakhir yang aku ingin menjadi." [40] Pearl Jam juga merasakan kesuksesan beban, dengan sebagian besar perhatian jatuh pada vokalis Eddie Vedder. [41] Nirvana album tindak lanjut In Utero (1993) adalah album yang kasar sengaja bassis Nirvana Krist Novoselic digambarkan sebagai "suara agresif liar, catatan alternatif sejati." [42] Namun demikian, setelah dirilis pada bulan September 1993 In Utero menduduki puncak tangga lagu Billboard. [43] Pearl Jam juga terus tampil baik komersial dengan album keduanya, Vs. (1993). The album sold a record 950,378 copies in its first week of release, topped the Billboard charts, and outperformed all other entries in the top ten that week combined. [ 44 ] Album ini terjual 950.378 eksemplar catatan dalam minggu pertama rilis, menduduki puncak tangga lagu Billboard, dan mengungguli semua entri dalam peringkat sepuluh minggu itu digabungkan. [44]

[ edit ] Decline of mainstream popularity [Sunting] Kemunduran popularitas mainstream

A number of factors contributed to grunge's decline in prominence. Sejumlah faktor yang berkontribusi terhadap penurunan grunge yang menonjol. During the latter half of the 1990s, grunge was supplanted by post-grunge , which remained commercially viable into the start of the 21st century. Selama paruh kedua tahun 1990-an, grunge itu digantikan oleh post-grunge, yang tetap komersial ke awal abad ke-21. Post-grunge bands such as Candlebox and Bush emerged soon after grunge's breakthrough. Post-grunge band-band seperti Candlebox dan Bush muncul segera setelah grunge's terobosan. These artists lacked the underground roots of grunge and were largely influenced by what grunge had become, namely "a wildly popular form of inward-looking, serious-minded hard rock." Para seniman ini tidak memiliki akar bawah tanah grunge dan sebagian besar dipengaruhi oleh apa yang grunge telah menjadi, yaitu "sebuah bentuk populer liar melihat ke dalam, serius hard rock." Post-grunge was a more commercially viable genre that tempered the distorted guitars of grunge with polished, radio-ready production. [ 45 ] Post-grunge adalah genre lebih komersial yang marah menyimpang gitar grunge dengan dipoles, radio-siap produksi. [45]

Conversely, another alternative rock genre, Britpop , emerged in part as a reaction against the dominance of grunge in the United Kingdom. Sebaliknya, genre rock alternatif lain, Britpop, muncul di bagian sebagai reaksi terhadap dominasi grunge di Inggris Raya. In contrast to the dourness of grunge, Britpop was defined by "youthful exuberance and desire for recognition." [ 46 ] Britpop artists were vocal about their disdain for grunge. Berbeda dengan dourness dari grunge, Britpop ditentukan oleh "semangat muda dan keinginan untuk pengakuan." [46] Britpop seniman vokal tentang kebencian mereka untuk grunge. In a 1993 NME interview, Damon Albarn of Britpop band Blur agreed with interviewer John Harris ' assertion that Blur was an "anti-grunge band," and said, "Well, that's good. If punk was about getting rid of hippies, then I'm getting rid of grunge." [ 47 ] Noel Gallagher of Oasis , while a fan of Nirvana, wrote music that refuted the pessimistic nature of grunge. Di tahun 1993 NME wawancara, Damon Albarn dari band Britpop Blur sependapat dengan pewawancara John Harris 'pernyataan bahwa Blur adalah seorang "anti-band grunge," dan berkata, "Yah, itu bagus. Jika punk adalah tentang menyingkirkan hippies, maka saya 'm menyingkirkan grunge. "[47] Noel Gallagher dari Oasis, sementara penggemar Nirvana, menulis musik yang menyangkal sifat pesimis grunge. Gallagher noted in 2006 that the 1994 Oasis single " Live Forever " "was written in the middle of grunge and all that, and I remember Nirvana had a tune called 'I Hate Myself and I Want to Die,' and I was like . . . 'Well, I'm not fucking having that.' Gallagher mencatat pada 2006 bahwa tahun 1994 single Oasis "Live Forever" "ditulis di tengah-tengah grunge dan semua itu, dan aku ingat Nirwana mempunyai lagu yang disebut 'I Hate Myself and I Wanna Die,' dan aku seperti.. . "Yah, aku tidak memiliki sialan itu." As much as I fucking like him [Cobain] and all that shit, I'm not having that. I can't have people like that coming over here, on smack , fucking saying that they hate themselves and they wanna die. That's fucking rubbish." [ 48 ] Seperti aku sialan seperti dia [Cobain] dan semua omong kosong itu, aku tidak memiliki itu. Aku tidak bisa memiliki orang seperti itu datang ke sini, di memukul, fucking mengatakan bahwa mereka membenci diri mereka sendiri dan mereka ingin mati. Itu fucking sampah. "[48]

During the mid-1990s many grunge bands broke up or became less visible. Selama pertengahan 1990-an banyak band grunge putus atau menjadi kurang terlihat. Kurt Cobain, labeled by Time as "the John Lennon of the swinging Northwest," appeared "unusually tortured by success" and struggled with an addiction to heroin. Kurt Cobain, yang diberi label oleh Sisa sebagai "John Lennon dari ayun Northwest," muncul "disiksa oleh kesuksesan luar biasa" dan berjuang dengan kecanduan heroin. Rumors surfaced in early 1994 that Cobain suffered a drug overdose and that Nirvana was breaking up. [ 49 ] On April 8, 1994, Cobain was found dead in his Seattle home from an apparently self-inflicted gunshot wound; Nirvana summarily disbanded. Desas-desus muncul pada awal tahun 1994 yang menderita Cobain overdosis dan bahwa Nirvana mulai berantakan. [49] Pada 8 April 1994, Cobain ditemukan tewas di Seattle pulang dari diri yang tampaknya ditimbulkan luka tembak; Nirwana ringkasnya dibubarkan. That same year Pearl Jam canceled its summer tour in protest of what it charged as ticket vendor Ticketmaster 's unfair business practices. [ 50 ] Pearl Jam then began a boycott of the company; however, Pearl Jam's initiative to play only at non-Ticketmaster venues effectively, with a few exceptions, prevented the band from playing shows in the United States for the next three years. [ 51 ] In 1996 Alice in Chains gave their final performances with their ailing estranged lead singer, Layne Staley , who subsequently died from a heroin overdose in 2002. Pada tahun yang sama dengan Pearl Jam membatalkan tur musim panas sebagai protes terhadap apa yang dibebankan sebagai penjual tiket Ticketmaster 's praktek-praktek bisnis yang tidak adil. [50] Pearl Jam kemudian mulai boikot terhadap perusahaan, namun, Pearl Jam inisiatif untuk bermain hanya di non-Ticketmaster tempat-tempat secara efektif, dengan beberapa pengecualian, dicegah dari bermain band menunjukkan di Amerika Serikat untuk tiga tahun berikutnya. [51] Pada tahun 1996 Alice in Chains memberikan penampilan terakhir mereka dengan sakit-sakitan mereka terasing vokalis, Layne Staley, yang kemudian meninggal dari overdosis heroin pada tahun 2002. That same year Soundgarden and Screaming Trees released their final studio albums, Down on the Upside and Dust , respectively. Pada tahun yang sama Soundgarden dan Screaming Trees merilis album studio terakhir mereka, Down on the Upside dan Debu, masing-masing. Soundgarden broke up the following year. Soundgarden bubar tahun berikutnya.

Some grunge bands have continued recording and touring with more limited success, including, most significantly, Pearl Jam. Beberapa band grunge terus rekaman dan tur dengan sukses lebih terbatas, termasuk, yang paling penting, Pearl Jam. While in 2006 Rolling Stone writer Brian Hiatt described Pearl Jam as having "spent much of the past decade deliberately tearing apart their own fame," he noted the band developed a loyal concert following akin to that of the Grateful Dead . [ 52 ] Despite Nirvana's demise, the band has continued to be successful posthumously. Sedangkan pada tahun 2006 penulis Rolling Stone Brian Hiatt Pearl Jam digambarkan sebagai memiliki "menghabiskan banyak dekade terakhir sengaja merobek-robek ketenaran mereka sendiri," ia mencatat band mengembangkan sebuah konser setia mirip dengan yang berikut dari Grateful Dead. [52] Meskipun Nirvana kematian, band ini terus menjadi sukses secara anumerta. Due to the high sales for Kurt Cobain's Journals and the band's best-of compilation Nirvana upon their releases in 2002, The New York Times argued Nirvana "are having more success now than at any point since Mr. Cobain's suicide in 1994." [ 53 ] Karena penjualan tinggi untuk Kurt Cobain's Journals dan band's best-of kompilasi Nirvana pada rilis mereka pada tahun 2002, The New York Times berpendapat Nirwana "mengalami lebih berhasil sekarang daripada pada setiap titik sejak Mr Cobain bunuh diri pada tahun 1994." [53 ]